... numquam me toleraturum animi servitutem ... that I will never tolerate mental servility
Sanctis contiguus sacroque patrivivit sic meritis Apollinaris,inlustris titulis, potens honore,rector militiae forique iudex,mundi inter tumidas quietus undas,causarum moderans subinde motusleges barbarico dedit furori;discordantibus inter arma regnispacem consilio reduxit amplo.Haec inter tamen et philosophandoscripsit perpetuis habenda saeclis;et post talia dona Gratiarumsummi pontificis sedens cathedrammundanos suboli refundit actus.Quisque hic dum lacrimis deum rogabis,dextrum funde preces super sepulcrum:nulli incognitus et legendus orbiillic Sidonius tibi invocetur.XII k(a)l(endas) Septembris Zenone imperatore.
Written in the interior margin of the last page of codex C (Matritensis 9448, formerly Ee 102, saec. X/XI), as printed by Lütjohann in the introduction to his edition, p. vi, with the corrections of Sirmond. In 1991, fragments of this epitaph (CLE 1516, Le Blant 562, Diehl 1067) were discovered at Clermont, which testifies to its authenticity. See Prévot 1993a, 1993b (esp. 257-59 = 1999, 77-80) and 1997, and Montzamir 2003 (see also 2014). See also Le Guillou 2002, 280-82. For the metre (phalaecean hendecasyllables, the same as used by Sidonius in the epitaph of his grandfather, Ep. 3.12.5) and an analysis, see Cugusi 1985, 111-13; another analysis can be found in Mascoli 2004, 166-72. For the date, Stevens 1933: 211-12, and Loyen, xxix. For the hypothesis that the author was Sidonius’ son, Apollinaris jr, see Condorelli 2013, 279; cf. Furbetta 2015, 250.As of January 2016: see now Furbetta 2014 and 2015 who has discovered the epitaph in another manuscript which she recently analysed. This privately owned, twelfth-century manuscript (Paris, IRHT, CP 347, formerly in the Schøyen collection) provides a different text of the epitaph, including its date (which had interestingly been conjectured by Mommsen in the preface to Lütjohann’s edition p. xlix). See also the IRHT website for information about the project in which this manuscript has been studied. The text in CP 347 runs as follows:
Close to the saints and to his holy father,1) thus lives Apollinaris by his merits;noble through his titles, powerful through his office, head of the military, magistrate at the court,quiet amid the world's billowing waves, then managing the turmoil of lawsuits, he imposed laws on the barbarian fury;2)for the realms that were involved in an armed conflict he restored peace by his great prudence.Amid all this, however, he also wrote learned works which will be handed down through the ages;and after these gifts of the Graces, sitting in the chair of the supreme pontiff, he discharged wordly affairs for posterity.3)Whoever you are, when you come here to implore God with tears, extend your prayer over this propitious4) grave:may Sidonius, unknown to nobody and to be read by all the world, be invoked by you there.August 21, under the reign of Zeno (474-491).5)1) Probably his predecessor, bishop Eparchius, is meant. Cf. Ov. Ars 3.409-10.2) Does this suggest that Sidonius partook in compiling the law code of Euric?3) Or ‘handed over his wordly affairs to his son’?4) Prof. Matthew McGowan, chair of Classical Studies at the College of Wooster, OH, thinks it possible that dextrum refers to the actual site of the tomb, i.e. to the right of the person reading the inscription (suggestion by e-mail). <25 January 2007> Köhler 2014, xvi, thinks it points to the tomb of Sidonius’ predecessor Eparchius to the right of Sidonius’ tomb in the chapel of Saturninus in Clermont. <26 November 2014>5) AD 479, in the 480s or by 486? (see Cugusi 1985, 111 n. 53). ‘On his sarcophagus, he [Sidonius] made no mention of his bishopric. His offices in the Respublica and his literary activities were what mattered for him. Nor did he date his death by the reign of any local king. Instead, he dated his death by the reign of the eastern emperor, Zeno. Sidonius considered Zeno, as emperor at Constantinople, to be the sole surviving head of the legitimate Roman empire.’ (Brown 2012, 406)
Sanctis contiguus sacroque patrivivit sic meritis Apollinaris,inlustris titulis, potens honore,rector militiae forique iudex,mundi inter tumidas quietus undas,causarum moderans subinde motusleges barbarico dedit furori;discordantibus inter arma regnispacem consilio reduxit amplo.Haec inter tamen et facundus orelibris excoluit vitam parentiset post talia dona Gratiarumsummi pontificis sedens cathedrammundanos suboli refundit actus.Quisque hic dum lacrimis deum rogabis,dextrum funde preces super sepulcrum:nulli incognitus et legendus orbiillic Sidonius tibi invocetur.Duodecimo Kalendas Septembris Zenone consule.
Amid all this, however, he also paid an eloquent tribute in his books to the life of his (fore)father/ parent …
August 21, in the consulate of Zeno (i.e. 479).
Brown, Peter, Through the Eye of a Needle, Princeton, NJ, 2012.Condorelli, Silvia, ‘Gli epigrammi funerari di Sidonio Apollinare’, in Marie-France Guipponi-Gineste and Céline Urlacher-Becht (eds), La renaissance de l'épigramme dans la latinité tardive, Paris, 2013, 261-82.Cugusi, Paolo, Aspetti letterari dei Carmina Latina Epigraphica, Bologna, 1985.Furbetta, Luciana, ‘Un nuovo manoscritto di Sidonio Apollinare. Una prima ricognizione’, Res Publica Litterarum 37 (2014) 135-57.-----, 'L'epitaffio di Sidonio Apollinare in un nuovo testimone manoscritto', Euphrosyne NS 43 (2015) 243-54. Köhler, Helga, C. Sollius Apollinaris Sidonius. Briefe, Stuttgart, 2014.Le Guillou, Jean, Sidoine Apollinaire. L’Auvergne et son temps, Mémoires de la Société ‘La Haute-Auvergne’ 8, Aurillac, 2002.Loyen, André, Sidoine Apollinaire, vol. 1 Poèmes, CUF, Paris, 1960.Mascoli, Patrizia, ‘Per una ricostruzione del Fortleben di Sidonio Apollinare’, Invigilata lucernis 26 (2004) 165-83.Montzamir, Patrice, ‘Nouvel essai de reconstitution matérielle de l'épitaphe de Sidoine Apollinaire (RICG, VIII, 21)’, AnTard 11 (2003) 321-27 ill. plan.-----, ‘Confirmation de l’existence de l’épitaphe de Sidoine Apollinaire’, in Bertrand Dousteyssier and Philippe Bet (eds), Éclats arvernes: Fragments archéologiques (Ier-Ve siècle apr. J.-C.), Clermont-Ferrand: Presses Universitaires Blaise Pascal, 2014, 46-47.Prévot, Françoise, ‘Deux fragments de l'épitaphe de Sidoine Apollinaire découverts à Clermont-Ferrand’, AnTard 1 (1993a) 223-29.-----, ‘Sidoine Apollinaire et l’Auvergne’, RHEF 79 (1993b) 243-59 [reprinted in Bernadette Fizellier-Sauget (ed.), L'Auvergne de Sidoine Apollinaire à Grégoire de Tours: histoire et archéologie, Clermont-Ferrand, 1999, 63-80].-----, ‘RICG VIII, 21: Clermont Ferrand, Saint-Saturnin (?)’, no 21 in Recueil des inscriptions chrétiennes de la Gaule antérieures à la Renaissance carolingienne, vol. 8 Aquitaine première, Paris: CNRS, 1997, 116-26.Stevens, C.E., Sidonius Apollinaris and His Age, Oxford, 1933.
The text in the Madrid manuscriptSource Spanish National Library
The text in the Paris manuscriptSource Furbetta 2015
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